Mechanisms of sleep-disordered breathing: causes and consequences.
Summary of "Mechanisms of sleep-disordered breathing: causes and consequences."
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is very common in the general population and is characterized by ineffective inspiratory efforts against a collapsed upper airway during sleep. Collapse occurs mainly at the level of the velopharynx and oropharynx due to a combination of predisposing anatomy and the withdrawal of pharyngeal dilator activity during sleep. Central sleep apnea (CSA) is a manifestation of chemoreflex control instability, leading to periods of inadequate respiratory drive sufficient to trigger breathing, usually alternating with periods of hyperventilation. While both forms of apnea are the result of differing pathophysiology, it has become increasingly clear that OSA and CSA often coexist in the same patient, the existence of one can predispose to the other, and that the two are not as distinct as previously thought. Both OSA and CSA exert a number of acute deleterious effects including intermittent hypoxia, arousals from sleep, and swings in negative intrathoracic pressure, which in turn lead to chronic physiologic consequences such as autonomic dysregulation, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiac remodeling. These underlying pathophysiological mechanisms provide a framework for understanding why OSA and CSA may predispose to cardiovascular diseases like ischemic heart disease and stroke.
St. Michael's Hospital Sleep Laboratory, 6-045 Bond Wing, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5B 1W8, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22083643
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-011-1055-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
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