Pancreatic Stem Cells: From Possible to Probable.
Summary of "Pancreatic Stem Cells: From Possible to Probable."
Type 1 and some forms of type 2 diabetes mellitus are caused by deficiency of insulin-secretory islet β cells. An ideal treatment for these diseases would therefore be to replace β cells, either by transplanting donated islets or via endogenous regeneration (and controlling the autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes). Unfortunately, the poor availability of donor islets has severely restricted the broad clinical use of islet transplantation. The ability to differentiate embryonic stem cells into insulin-expressing cells initially showed great promise, but the generation of functional β cells has proven extremely difficult and far slower than originally hoped. Pancreatic stem cells (PSC) or transdifferentiation of other cell types in the pancreas may hence provide an alternative renewable source of surrogate β cells. However, the existence of PSC has been hotly debated for many years. In this review, we will discuss the latest development and future perspectives of PSC research, giving readers an overview of this controversial but important area.
Centre for Diabetes Research, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research, and Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia, 50 Murray St (Rear), Perth, WA, 6000, Australia, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Stem cell reviews
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22090024
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-011-9333-8
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Multipotent Stem Cells
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
Carcinoma, Islet Cell
A primary malignant neoplasm of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the non-INSULIN-producing cell types, the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and the pancreatic delta cells (SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS) in GLUCAGONOMA and SOMATOSTATINOMA, respectively.
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
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