Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with alterations in circadian rhythms at the behavioural, endocrine and molecular levels.
Summary of "Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with alterations in circadian rhythms at the behavioural, endocrine and molecular levels."
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is associated with impaired sleep, and it has been postulated that this impairment may contribute to the psychopathology of this common condition. One key driver of sleep/wake cycles is the circadian system, which at the molecular level consists of a series of transcriptional feedback loops of clock genes, which in turn produce endocrine, physiological and behavioural outputs with a near 24 h periodicity. We set out to examine circadian rhythms at the behavioural, endocrine and molecular levels in ADHD. Adults with ADHD as well as age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Circadian rhythms were measured by means of actigraphy for the determination of gross motor patterns, by self-sampling of oral mucosa for assessment of rhythmic expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER2, and by estimation of salivary cortisol and melatonin levels. Actigraphic analysis revealed significant diurnal and nocturnal hyperactivity in the ADHD group, as well as a significant shorter period of best fit for the locomotor circadian rhythm in ADHD. BMAL1 and PER2 showed circadian rhythmicity in controls with this being lost in the ADHD group. Cortisol rhythms were significantly phase delayed in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that adult ADHD is accompanied by significant changes in the circadian system, which in turn may lead to decreased sleep duration and quality in the condition. Further, modulation of circadian rhythms may represent a novel therapeutic avenue in the management of ADHD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 22 November 2011; doi:10.1038/mp.2011.149.
Department of Neuroscience and Molecular Psychiatry, Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular psychiatry
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22105622
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2011.149
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Attention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of attention-deficit disorders in children and for narcolepsy. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
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