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Androgen receptor (AR) action in benign and malignant tissue is potentiated by a number of co-regulatory proteins that may interact with one or more receptor domains. With improvement of research methodologies, it became possible to detect a number of co-activators whose expression is increased in prostate cancer tissue.
Manuscripts describing prostate cancer-relevant regulation of cellular events by co-activators are selected and summarized.
AR co-activators may regulate histone modification, proteasomal degradation, chaperones, sumoylation, chromatin remodeling, and cytoskeleton. Some of them (TIF-2) are up-regulated by androgens, whereas the expression of others increases during androgen ablation (p300, CBP, and Tip60). Most co-factors are important for the stimulation of cellular proliferation, although in some cases (ART-27), they act as tumor suppressors and are deleted in prostate cancer tissue. In addition to stimulating AR, some co-activators suppress apoptosis in prostate cancer cells that do not express the AR (p300 and SRC-3). It was recently shown that the inhibition of p300 slows down proliferation, stimulates apoptosis, and inhibits migration and invasion.
Co-factors whose down-regulation results in the alterations of multiple cellular functions may be valid targets for novel therapies in advanced prostate cancer.
Experimental Urology, Department of Urology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: World journal of urology
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A synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
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