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The monovalent H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza vaccine used predominantly in the UK in 2009/10 was a split virion vaccine with a novel oil-in-water adjuvant (ASO3). While this was highly immunogenic it was also reactogenic especially for fever in children. There is a paucity of comparative data on reactogenicity of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). Using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) we investigated whether there was an increased risk of convulsions in children vaccinated with monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine in the 2009/10 season and also the risk after vaccination with the seasonal TIVs using the self-controlled case-series method. A total of 2366 children aged under 10 years with at least one convulsion recorded in the GPRD and who had received at least one influenza vaccine at anytime (2858 doses of TIV and 1895 doses of the monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine) were identified between May 2000 and April 2010. Over this period these 2366 children had a total of 3846 convulsion episodes. There was no increase in the incidence rate ratio (IRR) in the week after vaccination for either the monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.61-1.60) or the first dose of TIV (IRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.53-1.52). A signal of an elevated risk in the first few days after the second dose of monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine was seen with an IRR for days 1-3 post vaccination of 3.48 (95% CI 0.86-14.07). This is consistent with findings of increased fever in a clinical trial. These results neither provide evidence of an increased risk of convulsions following TIV over a 10-year surveillance period nor following a single dose of the ASO3 adjuvanted monovalent H1N1 vaccine in 2009/10.
Immunisation, Hepatitis and Blood Safety Department, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdom.
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A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Public Law No: 111-5, enacted February 2009, makes supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.
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Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
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Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...