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To artificially activate embryos in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), chemical treatment with ionomycin has been used to induce transient levels of Ca(2+) and initiate reprogramming of embryos. Ca(2+) oscillation occurs naturally several times after fertilization (several times with 15- to 30-min intervals). This indicates how essential additional Ca(2+) influx is for successful reprogramming of embryos. Hence, in this report, the experimental design was aimed at improving the developmental efficiency of cloned embryos by repetitive Ca(2+) transients rather than the commonly used ionomycin treatment (4 min). To determine optimal Ca(2+) inflow conditions, we performed three different repetitive ionomycin (10 µM) treatments in reconstructed embryos: Group 1 (4-min ionomycin treatment, once), Group 2 (30-sec treatment, 4 times, 15-min intervals) and Group 3 (1-min treatment, 4 times, 15-min intervals). Pronuclear formation rates were checked to assess the effects of repetitive ionomycin treatment on reprogramming of cloned embryos. Cleavage rates were investigated on day 2, and the formation rates of blastocysts (BLs) were examined on day 7 to demonstrate the positive effect of repeated ionomycin treatment. In Group 3, a significant increase in BL formation was observed [47/200 (23.50%), 44/197 (22.33%) and 69/195 (35.38%) in Groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively]. Culturing embryos with different ionomycin treatments caused no significant difference among the groups in terms of the total cell number of BLs (164.3, 158.5 and 145.1, respectively). Additionally, expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene and MnSOD increased significantly in Group 3, whereas the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax decreased statistically. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that repeated ionomycin treatment is an improved activation method that can increase the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by decreasing the incidence of apoptosis.
Sooam Biotech Research Foundation, Seoul 137-851, Republic of Korea.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Journal of reproduction and development
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Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections including BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE and BOVINE HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. The severity of disease appears to be strain dependent. Cytopathogenic effects do not correlate with virulence as non-cytopathic BVDV-2 is associated only with Hemorrhagic Disease, Bovine.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
Persistent detrimental effects from treatment for a condition. Included are effects from surgery such as POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS, and from DRUG THERAPY, such as CHEMICALLY INDUCED DISORDERS, or other THERAPEUTICS. Failure to attain a desired outcome from treatment for the condition is not considered an adverse effect.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)