Vitamin D and diabetes: its importance for beta cell and immune function.
Summary of "Vitamin D and diabetes: its importance for beta cell and immune function."
Experimental evidence indicates that vitamin D may play a role in the defense against type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of both T1D and T2D, whereas early and long-term vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of these disorders. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the regulation of several components such as the immune system and calcium homeostasis. However, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that vitamin D also affects beta cells directly thereby rendering them more resistant to the types of cellular stress encountered during T1D and T2D. This review evaluates the role of vitamin D signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D and T2D with a special emphasis on the direct effects of vitamin D on pancreatic beta cells.
Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Catholic University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. email@example.com
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular and cellular endocrinology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21889571
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2011.08.016
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Transforming Growth Factor Beta
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Vitamin D Deficiency
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D is thought to play a role in glucose homeostasis and beta cell function. Our aim was to examine the impact of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] upon in vivo insulin sensitivit...
Vitamin D is a pleiotropic secosteroid hormone important for health and disease prevention. The actions of vitamin D are mediated by the vitamin D receptor that binds the active form of vitamin D [1,2...
Effects of vitamin D on the immune system have been recognized for over 30 years and stemmed in part from analysis of the dysregulated vitamin D metabolism associated with granulomatous diseases. Howe...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Few studies have explored the epidemiology of beta cell loss in youth with diabetes. This report describes the evolution and major determinants of beta cell function, assessed by fast...
In type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas are destroyed by immune-mediated mechanisms. The manifestation of the disease is preceded by the so-called pre-diabetic period that may...
This study was intended to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet beta-cell function. Our hypothesis was that vitamin D supplementati...
Patients with diabetes have high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) because pancreatic beta-cells no longer produce sufficient insulin. Insufficient beta-cell function can be caused by an...
The purpose of this study is to characterise beta cell function in subjects who despite taking part in a diabetes prevention program (life style intervention with diet and exercise) exhibi...
Reduction in vitamin D levels has been reported in subjects with recent onset type 1 diabetes. Several studies suggest that vitamin D supplementation in early childhood decreases the risk...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by progressive deterioration in the function of the pancreatic beta-cells, which are the cells that produce an...