Advertisement

Topics

Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

Summary of "Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption."

The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

Affiliation

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Newark, NJ 07103, USA. christak@umdnj.edu

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Molecular and cellular endocrinology
ISSN: 1872-8057
Pages: 25-9

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [5965 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Vitamin D - old substance in new perspectives.

Receptors for vitamin D are present almost in all body tissues. Vitamin D does not only act as a regulator of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, but also a substance which modulates the immunity syste...

Protective Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Hepatic and Gastrointestinal Toxicity Induced by Chronic and Moderate Alcoholism.

Heavy alcohol intake depletes the plasma vitamins due to hepatotoxicity and decreased intestinal absorption. However, moderate alcohol intake is often thought to be healthy. Therefore, effects of chro...

Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementations: 2015 Position Statement of the Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Calcium and vitamin D are essential components for bone health, thus calcium and vitamin D supplementation is an important strategy in the management of osteoporosis. However, the benefit of calcium a...

Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis?

Systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the highest level of evidence to inform clinical practice. Meta-analyses of large RCTs of calcium and/or vitamin D supplements...

Use of a Loading Dose of Vitamin D for Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients With Intestinal Failure.

Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with intestinal failure and short bowel syndrome who have been weaned of parenteral nutrition. Dietary supplementation with vitamin D is necessary to correct...

Clinical Trials [2496 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Effect of Calcium 500 mg and Vitamin D3 1000 IU Chewable Tablet on Intestinal Calcium Absorption

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the intestinal absorption of calcium from a novel calcium carbonate-vitamin D3 chewable tablet formulation (calcium 500 mg and vitamin D3 1...

The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation During Caloric Restriction on Intestinal Calcium Absorption

The purpose of this study is to learn how the amount of vitamin D supplementation influences intestinal fractional calcium absorption (a measure of the amount of calcium absorbed).

Does Treatment of Hypovitaminosis D Increase Calcium Absorption?

The purpose is to perform a one-year study designed to assess whether treatment of hypovitaminosis D increases intestinal absorption of calcium, subsequent retention of calcium within bone...

The Effect of Protein on Calcium Absorption and Gastric Acid Production

We have established that dietary protein is an important regulator of intestinal calcium absorption in humans. However, we do not understand the mechanism by which dietary protein is affe...

Tumor Necrosis Factor Decreases Vitamin D Dependant Calcium Absorption

This study is a pilot study to determine whether patients with TNFα excess have decreased calcium absorption in response to calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.

A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.

A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)

A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.

A protein that plays a fundamental role in the Vitamin D mediated transport of calcium in reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. It is found in the intestine, kidneys, egg shell gland, brain, and possibly other organs. Its molecular weight is species dependent.

Quick Search
Advertisement
 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Nutrition
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...

Blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells.  In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...


Searches Linking to this Article