Recalcitrance of bacterial vaginosis among herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-seropositive women.
Summary of "Recalcitrance of bacterial vaginosis among herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-seropositive women."
Aim:â€‚ The multifactorial etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) impedes development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a suspected BV risk factor, on vaginal flora composition. Materials and Methods:â€‚ Correlations between HSV-2 infection and BV were prospectively explored among 12 HSV-2-seropositive women with asymptomatic BV who were asked to collect daily vaginal swab specimens for Gram stain analysis of vaginal flora and determination of HSV-2 shedding frequencies during the 1â€ƒmonth before and after metronidazole therapy. Results:â€‚ Unlike prior longitudinal studies that reported rapid fluctuations in vaginal flora composition and frequent episodes of spontaneously resolving BV, we found that 99.4% (310/312) of vaginal smears collected before initiation of metronidazole were consistent with a diagnosis of BV. Effectiveness of metronidazole therapy was also much lower than previously reported in studies not restricting enrollment to HSV-2-seropositive women; we observed a BV recurrence rate of 89% in the first month after completion of therapy while the median time to this recurrence occurred only 14â€ƒdays after treatment. Conclusions:â€‚ Our study demonstrates BV recalcitrance among HSV-2-infected women and provides additional evidence for a linkage between this chronic viral infection and abnormal vaginal flora. Additional work will be needed to define mechanisms responsible for this correlation and to determine if vaginal flora health of HSV-2-infected women is improved by medications that suppress HSV-2 shedding.
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences Pediatrics Medicine Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22136755
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0756.2011.01697.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65
Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
Host Cell Factor C1
A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
Herpes simplex, caused by type 1 virus, primarily spread by oral secretions and usually occurring as a concomitant of fever. It may also develop in the absence of fever or prior illness. It commonly involves the facial region, especially the lips and the nares. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
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