Lead powder use for skin care and elevated blood lead level among children in a Chinese rural area.
Summary of "Lead powder use for skin care and elevated blood lead level among children in a Chinese rural area."
To investigate the association between lead powder use, as folk skin care, and blood lead level (BLL) in children, we studied 222 children up to 14-years old living in a Chinese rural area and administered a face to face interview with their parents to collect information on lead powder use and other potential exposure. We measured children's BLL at baseline and 2 years later after an intervention. The children were divided into three categories according to their use of lead powder: regular use, irregular use and never use. We applied multivariate linear regression to determine the association between lead powder use and elevated BLL. The average BLL of all children was 18 μg/dl; 56% of them had BLL of 10 μg/dl or higher. Lead powder use was significantly associated with elevated BLL. After adjusting for potential confounders the BLL of regular and irregular users was higher than non-users by 3.11 μg/dl and 1.47 μg/dl, respectively. Duration of lead powder use was positively associated with BLL, but the time since last use was inversely associated. A significant BLL reduction was observed 2 years later, and the greatest reduction (21 μg/dl) was seen in the youngest group of regular users. This study showed that traditional use of lead powder for a skin care purpose was a major contributor to elevated BLL in these children.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 14 December 2011; doi:10.1038/jes.2011.46.
1] School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China  Fujian Center for Control and Prevention of Occupational diseases and Chemical Poisoning, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22166809
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jes.2011.46
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Childhood
Neurologic disorders occurring in children following lead exposure. The most frequent manifestation of childhood lead toxicity is an encephalopathy associated with chronic ingestion of lead that usually presents between the ages of 1 and 3 years. Clinical manifestations include behavioral changes followed by lethargy; CONVULSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; DELIRIUM; ATAXIA; and vomiting. Elevated intracranial pressure (HYPERTENSION, INTRACRANIAL) and CEREBRAL EDEMA may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1210-2)
Lead Poisoning, Nervous System
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Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Adult
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