Neurobiology and Neuropathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
Summary of "Neurobiology and Neuropathophysiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea."
Significant advancements have been made over the past three decades to better understand the disease entity of obstructive sleep apnea and the mechanisms by which this prevalent disorder imparts injury. Once considered a disorder of reversible sleepiness and insignificant arterial oxygen desaturations because of their intermittency, obstructive sleep apnea is now considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and an important contributor to neurocognitive impairment and neural injury as well as metabolic dysfunction. The rapidly fluctuating oxygen patterns are now believed to be central to oxidative injury in the brain and peripheral organs. Recent studies in both humans with sleep apnea and animal models of the disorder have increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying both the disorder and its sequelae, providing great insight into the significance of the disorder and bringing us closer to finding therapies to prevent or reduce both obstructive sleep apnea and it morbidities.
Department of Neurology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital to the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuromolecular medicine
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22169915
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12017-011-8165-7
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
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