Relationship between body mass index of offspring and maternal smoking during pregnancy.
Summary of "Relationship between body mass index of offspring and maternal smoking during pregnancy."
To examine the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the body composition of offspring.
Grade 4 elementary school children (n=1366; boys/girls, 724/642; 9-10 years old) were enrolled in this study. All parents answered a lifestyle questionnaire, and children underwent passive smoking tests. Urinary cotinine measurement and lifestyle screening test parameters (that is, body weight, body length, body mass index (BMI), obesity index (OI), blood tests for liver function and lipid profile and questions regarding maternal smoking and lifestyle) were evaluated in terms of their relationship with maternal smoking. In addition, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration was measured in 80 randomly selected children to assess its relationship with oxidative stress.
Both BMI and OI were significantly higher in children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy than in those whose mothers never smoked (
17.2±2.7 vs 16.9±2.5 kg m(-2), P=0.016;
2.7±14.3% vs 0.4±14.0%, P=0.003). The degree of elevation was positively correlated with the duration of maternal smoking. The increases in BMI and OI resulted from increased body weight and reduced height. The confounding factors-'breakfast with family', 'watching television at dinner', 'eating and drinking before sleep', 'watching television for >2 h', 'sleep duration <8 h' and 'playing sports'-were statistically significant. BMI and OI were significantly high in children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy in these six confounders. On the other hand, urinary 8-OHdG concentration was negatively correlated with BMI in children who had >1.3 ng ml(-1) urinary cotinine, suggesting that it may be related to basal metabolism due to oxidative stress.
Maternal smoking is a risk factor for higher BMI and OI in 9- to 10-year-old children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy and may be independent of other confounding factors.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 20 December 2011; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.255.
1] Faculty of Health Science, Gunma Paz College, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan  Kumagaya Medical Association, Kumagaya, Saitama, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International journal of obesity (2005)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22184058
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2011.255
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Body Mass Index
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
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