Pharmacokinetics of Ertapenem in Colorectal Tissue.
Summary of "Pharmacokinetics of Ertapenem in Colorectal Tissue."
Background: There are only limited data on tissue kinetics of ertapenem in colorectal tissue more than 3 h after administration of the drug. The purpose of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ertapenem in colorectal tissue via population PK modeling. Patients and Methods: Patients ≥18 years requiring surgical intervention at the colon and/or rectum were eligible (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT 00535652). Tissue and blood samples were taken during surgery after a single dose of 1 g ertapenem. Ertapenem concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Population PK modeling was performed in S-ADAPT. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled. The highest tissue concentration was 6.4 ± 2.3 mg/kg, the highest total plasma concentration 51.34 ± 9.4 mg/l, the highest unbound plasma concentration 7.05 ± 1.1 mg/l, and the unbound fraction in plasma was 14-15% for total ertapenem concentrations below approximately 22 mg/l, 19% at 100 mg/l, and 25% at 250 mg/l. The estimated geometric mean terminal half-life was 2.5 h for plasma and tissue. In the Monte Carlo simulation, a single dose of 1,000 mg ertapenem achieved robust (≥90%) probabilities of target attainment up to a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of approximately 2 mg/l for the bacteriostasis target (free time above MIC, fT(>)(MIC) = 20%) and up to 0.25-0.5 mg/l for the near-maximal killing target (40% fT(>)(MIC)). Conclusion: Our data indicate an adequate penetration of ertapenem into uninfected colorectal tissue up to 8.5 h (35% of the dosing interval) after administration of 1 g intravenously.
Department§ of Visceral Surgery, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Aberrant Crypt Foci
Clusters of colonic crypts that appear different from the surrounding mucosa when visualized after staining. They are of interest as putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and potential biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (MCC stands for mutated in colorectal cancer).
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 18q21-qter region of human chromosome 18. The absence of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (DCC stands for deleted in colorectal cancer). The products of these genes show significant homology to neural cell adhesion molecules and other related cell surface glycoproteins.
Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis
A group of autosomal-dominant inherited diseases in which COLON CANCER arises in discrete adenomas. Unlike FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI with hundreds of polyps, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms occur much later, in the fourth and fifth decades. HNPCC has been associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It has been subdivided into Lynch syndrome I or site-specific colonic cancer, and LYNCH SYNDROME II which includes extracolonic cancer.
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