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Motor neuron diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are devastating disorders and effective therapies have not yet been established. One of the reasons for this lack of therapeutics, especially in sporadic ALS (SALS), is attributed to the absence of excellent disease models reflecting its pathology. For this purpose, identifying important key molecules for ALS pathomechanisms and developing disease models is crucial, and omics approaches, including genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics, have been employed. In particular, transcriptome analysis using cDNA microarray is the most popular omics approach and we have previously identified dynactin-1 as an important molecule downregulated in the motor neurons of SALS patients from the early stage of the disease. Dynactin-1 is also known as a causative gene in familial ALS (FALS). Dynactin-1 is a major component of the dynein/dynactin motor protein complex functioning in retrograde axonal transport. In motor neuron diseases as well as other neurodegenerative diseases, the role of axonal transport dysfunction in their pathogenesis always draws attention, but its precise mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In this article, we review our previous omics approach to SALS and the role of dynactin-1 in the pathogenesis of ALS. Finally, we emphasize the need for creating novel SALS disease models based on the results of omics analysis, especially based on the observation that dynactin-1 gene expression was downregulated in SALS motor neurons.
Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Aichi Gakuin University School of Health Science, Aichi Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technolo
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
This review describes the most common motor neuron disease, ALS. It discusses the diagnosis and evaluation of ALS and the current understanding of its pathophysiology, including new genetic underpinni...
Motor neuron diseases can cause progressive impairment of voluntary muscles of movement, respiration, speech, and swallowing. This review discusses the most common motor neuron disease, amyotrophic la...
To describe a novel manifestation of lower motor neuron disease in patients with well-controlled HIV infection.
The most frequent causes of disability of patients with neurological diseases are motor disorders in the upper motor neuron lesion caused by the damage of the brain and/or the spinal cord that resulte...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe and incurable neurodegenerative disease. Human motor neurons generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSc) offer new perspectives for disease mod...
Levetiracetam (Keppra) is used to treat partial onset seizures. Its biological effects suggest it might also be useful in treating 3 aspects of human motor neuron diseases (MNDs) for whic...
This study will collect blood samples from patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to be used for research on genetic causes of motor neuron d...
Despite significant progress in the identification of mechanisms involved in motor neuron degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and other motor system diseases, the actual pa...
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease MND) among adults. Motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebral motor cortex degenerate and create...
This study hypothesizes that bone subjecting to mechanical loading may affect excitability of alpha motor neuron innervating muscle. Among patients who will be admitted to the investigato...
Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.
A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.
A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...