Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Cardiac excitability and electrical activity are determined by the sum of individual ion channels, gap junctions and exchanger activities. Electrophysiological remodeling during heart disease involves changes in membrane properties of cardiomyocytes and is related to higher prevalence of arrhythmia-associated morbidity and mortality. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of cardiac cells as well as animal models of cardiovascular diseases are used to identity changes in electrophysiological properties and the molecular mechanisms associated with the disease. Protein kinase C (PKC) and several other kinases play a pivotal role in cardiac electrophysiological remodeling. Therefore, identifying specific therapies that regulate these kinases is the main focus of current research. PKC, a family of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as potential signaling nodes associated with biochemical and biophysical stress in cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we describe the role of PKC isozymes that are involved in cardiac excitability and discuss both genetic and pharmacological tools that were used, their attributes and limitations. Selective and effective pharmacological interventions to normalize cardiac electrical activities and correct cardiac arrhythmias will be of great clinical benefit.
Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford CA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition)
PHOSPHOLIPASE C PLC IS A KEY ENZYME IN PHOSPHOINOSITIDE METABOLISM PLC HYDROLYSES PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 4,5-BIS-PHOSPHATE TO GENERATE 2 SECOND MESSENGERS, INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE AND DIACYLGLYCE...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulates the principle ion channels mediating cardiac excitability and conduction, but how this regulation translates to the normal and ischemi...
Emerging evidence suggested the preferable effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) against cardiac lipotoxicity, which worsens cardiac function by means of excessive ser...
Regenerating islet-derived 3γ (Reg3γ) is a multifunctional protein, associated with various tissue injuries and inflammatory states. Since chronic inflammation is characteristics also for heart fail...
Cardiac remodeling in diabetes involves cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is an important mediator of this process. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic antioxidant, repor...
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of general anaesthetics on nerve excitability. We use the method of threshold tracking to measure selected parameters of nerve excitabili...
The purpose of this study is to learn if kinase, a protein found in the heart, contributes to thickening of the heart muscle in people with high blood pressure. A protein called myosin ca...
This study addresses the changes in the axonal excitability parameters. It will compare these changes in patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with HCN1 channel mutation a...
Several hormones involved in body weight regulation increase the investigators ability to burn fat for energy. The purpose of this study is to investigate how burning fat for energy may af...
The objective of this study is to test and determine whether a high protein diet is efficacious, safe and beneficial to curtail food intake and body weight in obese adult human patients an...
One of four major classes of mammalian serine/threonine specific protein phosphatases. Protein phosphatase 2C is a monomeric enzyme about 42 kDa in size. It shows broad substrate specificity dependent on divalent cations (mainly manganese and magnesium). Three isozymes are known in mammals: PP2C -alpha, -beta and -gamma. In yeast, there are four PP2C homologues: phosphatase PTC1 that have weak tyrosine phosphatase activity, phosphatase PTC2, phosphatase PTC3, and PTC4. Isozymes of PP2C also occur in Arabidopsis thaliana where the kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) containing a C-terminal PP2C domain, dephosphorylates Ser/Thr receptor-like kinase RLK5.
A G-protein-coupled receptor kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in the MYOCARDIUM and may play a role in the regulation of cardiac functions.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Aurora kinase C is a chromosomal passenger protein that interacts with aurora kinase B in the regulation of MITOSIS. It is found primarily in GERM CELLS in the TESTIS, and may mediate CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION during SPERMATOGENESIS.
A 38-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase that is abundantly expressed in a broad variety of cell types. It is involved in the regulation of cellular stress responses as well as the control of proliferation and survival of many cell types. The kinase activity of the enzyme is inhibited by the pyridinyl-imidazole compound SB 203580.