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Cell membrane glycoconjugates undergo characteristic changes as a consequence of neoplastic transformation. The cancer-associated carbohydrate structures play key roles in cancer progression by altering the cell-cell and cell-environment interactions. In this review, we will discuss some of the most relevant cancer-associated carbohydrate structures, including the b1,6-branching of N-linked chains, the sialyl Lewis antigens, the a2,6-sialylated lactosamine, the Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigens and gangliosides. We will describe the mechanisms leading to the expression of these structures and their interactions with sugar binding molecules, such as selectins and galectins. Finally, we will discuss how the glycosylation machinery of the cell is controlled by signal transduction pathways, epigenetic mechanisms and responds to hypoxia.
Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Via S. Giacomo 14, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
To decrease the mortality of lung cancer, better screening- and diagnostic tools as well as treatment options are needed. Protein glycosylation is one of the major post-translational modifications tha...
The membrane glycoprotein CD133 is a popular marker for cancer stem cells and contributes to cancer initiation and invasion in a number of tumor types. CD133 promotes tumorigenesis partly through an i...
Glycosylation is one of the most abundant forms of protein posttranslational modification. O-glycosylation is a major type of protein glycosylation, comprising different types and structures expressed...
Cancer cells depend on altered metabolism and nutrient uptake to generate and keep the malignant phenotype. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway is a branch of glucose metabolism that produces UDP-GlcN...
Aberrant glycosylation changes normal cellular functions and represents a specific hallmark of cancer. Lewisy (Ley) carbohydrate upregulation has been reported in a variety of cancers, including oral ...
The objective of the study is to investigate congenital disorders of glycosylation in congenital heart diseases without a clear molecular or genetic basis.
Background: - A congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) affects the cells that make up the organs and tissues. In these cells, sugar molecules do not properly attach to other molecules...
This research trial studies genetic and molecular mechanisms in assessing response in patients with prostate cancer receiving enzalutamide therapy. Androgens can cause the growth of prosta...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the physiology associated with plasticity of the motor system. Plasticity refers to the process by which neighboring brain cells assume the res...
The objective of this SAMMPRIS-affiliated study is to understand the mechanisms the mechanisms that underlie ischemic stroke recurrence in high-grade intracranial atherosclerotic disease i...
A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
A highly purified recombinant glycoprotein form of human THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE, produced by recombinant DNA technology comprising two non-covalently linked subunits, an alpha subunit of 92 amino acid residues containing two N-linked glycosylation sites, and a beta subunit of 118 residues containing one N-linked glycosylation site. The amino acid sequence of thyrotropin alfa is identical to that of human pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
The study of the structure, biosynthesis, and function of CARBOHYDRATES and GLYCOSYLATION.
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...