Surgery for atrial fibrillation: recent progress and future perspective.
Summary of "Surgery for atrial fibrillation: recent progress and future perspective."
Development and introduction of radiofrequency ablation devices allowed the maze procedures to be performed safely and easily, further enabling off-pump pulmonary vein isolation through a mini-thoracotomy or thoracoscope. The effects of the maze procedure include prevention of stroke and other complications related to atrial fibrillation, improved cardiac performance, and relief of symptoms. Indications for the maze procedure have been discussed on the basis of the evidence. Pulmonary vein isolation has been shown to be effective in most patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and can be performed with endocardial catheter ablation and minimally invasive epicardial ablation. These two modalities should be compared in terms of the success rate, occurrence of cerebral microembolic signals, capability of additional lesions indicated for persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, and closure of the left atrial appendage. Noncontinuous or nontransmural lines of conduction block as a result of incomplete ablation can result in recurrence of atrial fibrillation and induction of atrial tachycardia. Intraoperative verification of conduction block across the ablation lines is recommended to prevent these complications. Volume reduction of the enlarged left atrium or a boxlesion to isolate the entire posterior left atrium may be effective in patients with a dilated left atrium, but the potentially impaired atrial transport function should be considered. Mapping of active ganglionated plexi and their ablation may improve the outcome of the procedure, but the long-term effect on atrial fibrillation and autonomic nerve activities should be examined.
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8602, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22237734
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11748-011-0849-2
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
Atrial Premature Complexes
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
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