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We present a pictorial review of neonatal ischemic brain injury and look at its pathophysiology, imaging features and differential diagnoses from a radiologist's perspective. The concept of perinatal stroke is defined and its distinction from hypoxic-ischemic injury is emphasized. A brief review of recent imaging advances is included and a diagnostic approach to neonatal ischemic brain injury is suggested.
Department of Radiology, Seattle Children's Hospital and University of Washington Medical Center, 4800 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pediatric radiology
White matter (WM) analysis in neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is challenging, as demonstrated by the issue of diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). We evaluated the reliabil...
To examine the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of neonatal brain injury defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network to predic...
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Cytokines have been proposed as mediators of neonatal brain injury via neuroinflammatory pathways triggered by hypoxia-ischemia. Limited data are available on cytokine profiles in larger cohorts of ne...
Perinatal asphyxia induces neuronal cell death and brain injury, and is often associated with irreversible neurological deficits in children. There is an urgent need to elucidate the neuronal death me...
The purpose of this research is to study the proteomic profile of individuals with ischemic brain injury. By comparing acute ischemic injury to other neurological diseases or systemic vas...
The study of plasma and urine proteomic profiles in patients with ischemic brain injury is important to better understanding of the mechanisms by which thrombolytic agents or other therapy...
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Rupture of brain aneurysms is a common cause of death and disability, accounting for as many as 10% of stroke cases in the United States. While much of the resulting injury to the nervous ...
The highest risk for perinatal brain injury occurs among extremely premature infants who weigh less than 1250 grams at birth. Such perinatal brain injury is currently irreversible, associa...
The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.
Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)
Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.
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