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The intrinsic property of liquids is a vital indicator of formulation performance and stability. Therefore, investigation of the interfacial phenomenon of surface tension is a routine procedure in the development of products in a wide variety of areas including foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and painting technologies. We hypothesize that studies related to the maximum pull on a rod can be extrapolated to disk geometry and applied to measure surface tension using a texture analyzer. A glass disk probe was attached to the arm of a texture analyzer and pulled from the liquid surface. The maximum force of detachment was used to calculate surface tension extrapolating from the theory of maximum pull on a rod. The surface tension of water, ethanol, and a hydroalcoholic solution was measured and compared with literature values to validate this hypothesis. The calculated values of surface tension for the liquids studied were within 5% of the reported values. Probe diameter appears to have an important role on surface tension accuracy compared with literature values. Slight discrepancies can be attributed to temperature control and leveling of liquid surface, although still in accordance with the reported values of surface tension measured using different methods. This study presents a simple, precise, and quick method to determine the surface tension of liquids from the maximum pull on a disk. Further studies are warranted to determine the optimum glass disk probe diameter for better accuracy.
Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2409 University Ave. PHR 4.214, Austin, Texas, 78712-1095, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: AAPS PharmSciTech
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