Ultrastructural changes in bacterial membranes induced by nano-assemblies β-cyclodextrin chlorhexidine: SEM, AFM, and TEM evaluation.
Summary of "Ultrastructural changes in bacterial membranes induced by nano-assemblies β-cyclodextrin chlorhexidine: SEM, AFM, and TEM evaluation."
Chemical hosts bind their guests by the same physical mechanisms as biomolecules and often display similarly subtle structure activity relationships. The cyclodextrins have found increasing application as inert, nontoxic carriers of active compounds in drug formulations. The present study was conducted to prepare inclusion complexes of chlorhexidine:β-cyclodextrin (Cx:β-cd), and evaluate their interactions with bacterial membrane through: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and measuring morphology alterations, roughness values, and cell weights by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the antimicrobial activity was significantly enhanced by cyclodextrin encapsulation. SEM analysis images demonstrated recognizable cell membrane structural changes and ultrastructural membrane swelling. By TEM, cellular alterations such as vacuolization, cellular leakage, and membrane defects were observed; these effects were enhanced at 1:3 and 1:4 Cx:β-cd. In addition, AFM analysis at these ratios showed substantially more membrane disruption and large aggregates mixing with microorganism remains. In conclusion, nanoaggregates formed by cyclodextrin inclusion compounds create cluster-like structures with the cell membrane, possibly due to a hydrogen rich bonding interaction system with increasing surface roughness and possibly increasing the electrostatic interaction between cationic chlorhexidine with the lipopolysaccharides of Gram negative bacteria.
Restorative Dentistry Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) , Belo horizonte , Brazil.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmaceutical development and technology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22260726
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10837450.2011.649853
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
Immunoglobulins induced by substances elaborated by BACTERIA that have an antigenic activity.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
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