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Background: Coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) is defined as delayed coronary opacification in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. In the present study, we sought to define its prevalence and clinical features. Methods and Results: The 1,741 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) were identified. Those with normal left ventricular ejection fraction and normal coronary arteries were included in the study (n=158). TIMI frame counts were calculated, and data on demographics, comorbidities, and medication use were collected. CSFP was defined as frame count >27. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of CSFP. CSFP was identified in 96 (5.5%) subjects referred for CAG. Subjects with CSFP were more obese (body mass index [BMI] 33.9 vs. 29.8kg/m(2), P=0.003) and had lower high-density lipoprotein levels (39.7 vs. 45.7mg/dl, P=0.04). In the CSFP group, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and frame counts increased significantly with increasing vessel involvement (1-, vs. 2-, vs. 3-vessel involvement; P<0.05 for each variable). By multivariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio 3.36, 95% confidence interval 1.17-8.61, P=0.02) and higher BMI independently predicted the presence of CSFP (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.15, P=0.003). Conclusions: CSFP is associated with male sex and obesity. Multivessel involvement may be a marker of more severe, diffuse disease. Further studies are needed to investigate this hypothesis.
Section of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
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Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
A complication of INTERNAL MAMMARY-CORONARY ARTERY ANASTOMOSIS whereby an occlusion or stenosis of the proximal SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY causes a reversal of the blood flow away from the CORONARY CIRCULATION, through the grafted INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY (internal thoracic artery), and back to the distal subclavian distribution.
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Obesity is the condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body (mostly in subcutaneous tissues). clinical obesity is considered to be present when a person has a BMI of over 30 (Oxford Dictionary of Medicine). It is becoming increasing common i...