Kinematic differences between front crawl sprint and distance swimmers at a distance pace.
Summary of "Kinematic differences between front crawl sprint and distance swimmers at a distance pace."
Abstract The purpose of the study was to determine whether there are differences in kinematics between sprint and distance front crawl specialists when swimming at a distance pace using a six beat kick. Seven sprint and eight distance male specialists performed one maximum 400 m swim through a 6.75 m(3) calibrated space recorded by six gen-locked cameras. The following variables were calculated: average swim velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency, upper limb and foot displacement, elbow angle, the shoulder and hip roll angle, duration of the stroke phases and time corresponding to particular events within the stroke cycle relative to hand entry. Differences between the groups were assessed by an independent t-test and effect size (d) calculations for each variable. The groups only differed significantly with respect to the average swim velocity, with the distance swimmers maintaining a greater velocity throughout the 400 m. However, effect sizes were moderate for elbow angle range during the pull phase (d = 0.78) and the total hip roll magnitude (d = 0.76). There was little evidence to suggest that sprint and distance swimmers using a six beat kick pattern differ in technique when swimming at a distance pace and therefore coaches should not encourage the development of different techniques between these groups.
a Centre of Aquatics Research and Education, The University of Edinburgh , United Kingdom.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of sports sciences
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22315962
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.660186
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.
The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.
Observation and aquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.
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