In vitro comparison of commensal, probiotic and pathogenic strains of Enterococcus faecalis.
Summary of "In vitro comparison of commensal, probiotic and pathogenic strains of Enterococcus faecalis."
In vivo studies have provided evidence that micro-organisms have important roles in immunological, digestive and respiratory functions, conferring health benefits on the host. Several in vitro methods have been advised for the initial screening of microbes with potential health effects. The objective of the present study was to employ such in vitro methodology to characterise different strains of Enterococcus faecalis. The characteristics of a commercial product marketed as a probiotic, Symbioflor-1 (Symbiopharm), were compared with the characteristics of both pathogenic and commensal strains. Tolerance towards low pH and viability after exposure to human gastric and duodenal juices were assayed. Symbioflor-1 was the most susceptible strain to these treatments when compared with the other E. faecalis strains. Furthermore, Symbioflor-1 exhibited the lowest adhesion capacity to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and mucus. Competitive binding studies using heparin indicated that glycosaminoglycans might be involved in the adhesion to IEC, but also that differences in these putative bacteria-host interactions do not cause the relative low adhesion capacity of Symbioflor-1. Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) after exposure to bacteria was assayed as an indication of an immunomodulatory effect. All strains induced a moderate elevation of the DC maturation markers CD83 and CD86; however, no strain-specific differences were detected. Correlations between in vitro and in vivo studies are discussed. Although in vitro assaying is a rational starting point for the selection of microbes with a potential health benefit, it is emphasised that human clinical trials are the definite tool for establishing probiotic status.
Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, NO-1757 Halden, Norway.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The British journal of nutrition
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348541
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512000220
Erratum for La Rosa et al., In Vivo Assessment of Growth and Virulence Gene Expression during Commensal and Pathogenic Lifestyles of luxABCDE-Tagged Enterococcus faecalis Strains in Murine Gastrointestinal and Intravenous Infection Models.
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
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The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.