Noncovalent bifunctional organocatalysts: powerful tools for contiguous quaternary-tertiary stereogenic carbon formation, scope, and origin of enantioselectivity.
Summary of "Noncovalent bifunctional organocatalysts: powerful tools for contiguous quaternary-tertiary stereogenic carbon formation, scope, and origin of enantioselectivity."
Relying on the assembly of commercially available catalyst building blocks, highly stereocontrolled quaternary carbon (all carbon substituted) formation has been achieved with unmatched substrate diversity. For example, the in situ assembly of a tricomponent catalyst system allows α-branched aldehyde addition to nitroalkene or maleimide electrophiles (Michael products), while addition to an α-iminoester affords Mannich reaction products. Very good yields are observed and for fifteen of the eighteen examples 96-99 % ee is observed. Using racemic α-branched aldehydes, two contiguous (quaternary-tertiary) stereogenic centers can be formed in high diastereo- and enantiomeric excess (eight examples) via an efficient in situ dynamic kinetic resolution, solving a known shortcoming for maleimide electrophiles in particular. The method is of practical value, requiring only 1.2 equiv of the aldehyde, a 5.0 mol % loading of each catalyst component, for example, O-tBu-L-threonine (O-tBu-L-Thr), sulfamide, DMAP or O-tBu-L-Thr, KOH, and room temperature reactions. As a highlight, the first demonstration of ethylisovaleraldehyde (7) addition is disclosed, providing the most congested quaternary stereogenic carbon containing succinimide product (8) known to date. Finally, mechanistic insight, via DFT calculations, support a noncovalent assembly of the catalyst components into a bifunctional catalyst, correctly predict two levels of product stereoselectivity, and suggest the origin of the tricomponent catalyst system's exceptionality: an alternative hydrogen bond motif for the donor-acceptor pair than currently suggested for non-assembled catalysts.
School of Engineering & Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany), Fax: (+49) 421-200-3229. email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22354747
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201103005
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A rapid biochemical reaction involved in the formation of proteins. It begins even before a protein has been completely synthesized and proceeds through discrete intermediates (primary, secondary, and tertiary structures) before the final structure (quaternary structure) is developed.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
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