The Emerging of Xylazine as a New Drug of Abuse and its Health Consequences among Drug Users in Puerto Rico.
Summary of "The Emerging of Xylazine as a New Drug of Abuse and its Health Consequences among Drug Users in Puerto Rico."
During the last decade, the veterinary anesthetics have gained popularity as recreational drugs. The aim of this study was to document the use of "anestecia de caballo" (xylazine) and its consequences among drug users in Puerto Rico. The study combined a cross-sectional survey with 89 drug users and two focus groups conducted in Mayagüez with frontline drug treatment providers. Drug users were recruited from communities of the San Juan metropolitan area using a variety of ethnographic and outreach strategies. A short questionnaire developed for the study collected information on sociodemographics, xylazine use, and its consequences. The two focus groups were conducted to discuss the details related to xylazine use, its consequences, and utilization awareness. The sample comprised 63 males (70.8%) and 26 females with a mean age of 37.2 years. The mean number of years of drug use was 14.3, with a mean frequency of drug use of 5.9 times daily. More than 65% reported speedball as the principal drug of use. The prevalence of xylazine use was 80.7%. More than 42% of the sample used xylazine in a mixture with speedball. The main route of administration of xylazine was injection but 14% reported the use of xylazine by inhalation. More than 35% of the sample reported skin lesions and 21.1% reported at least one overdose episode. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that males (OR = 3.47, CI = 1.10-12.00) and those who reported speedball as their main drug of use (OR = 9.34, CI = 2.51-34.70) were significantly more likely to be xylazine users. Focus groups revealed that drug users claimed to recognize the presence of xylaxine in a mixture of speedball based on its effects, taste, the color of the drug (dark brown), and its odor. In conclusion, the use of xylazine among drug users in Puerto Rico seems to be an emerging trend with potentially serious health consequences.
Medical Science Campus Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22391983
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-011-9662-6
Treating the drug addicted dental patient is different than treating the non-addicted patient due to differences related to the emotional/behavioral/personality issues of the addict, the addict's ofte...
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with adolescent alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse/dependence, mental health and co-occurring problems; as well as factors associated with access t...
Despite a growing pipeline of effective clinical treatments, there remains a persistent research-to-practice gap in drug abuse services. Delivery of effective treatment services is especially lacking ...
We reviewed the studies published in 2012-2013 that focused on re-emerging and emerging injection and noninjection drug use trends driving HIV risk behaviors and transmission in some parts of the worl...
In recent years service providers experienced a new phenomenon in the drug markets of Hungary: the dramatically increasing sale and use of designer drugs. In psychiatric practice, the first sign of th...
The primary objective of this study is to compare the relative abuse potential of two different doses of orally administered Acurox Tablets to orally administered immediate-release (IR) ox...
Drug abuse and HIV/AIDS are serious global health problems. Injection drug use is currently the major mode of transmission of HIV in many countries. The purpose of this study is to deter...
The purpose of this study is to develop and test an intervention to reduce bacterial and viral infections among injection drug users.
The primary purpose of the project entitled: Multidisciplinary Approach to Reduce Injury and Substance Abuse, which is funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (5R01DA026088-02), is ...
Purpose of the project is to examine the effectiveness of Reinforcement-Based Treatment (RBT) on drug abuse and psychosocial outcomes of iner city opiate abusers who have recently complete...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A component of the Executive Office of the President established by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. The Office establishes policies, priorities, and objectives for national DRUG AND NARCOTIC CONTROL. The goals of the program are to reduce illicit drug use, manufacturing, and trafficking, drug-related crime and violence, and drug-related health consequences.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts research focused on improving the treatment and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems to reduce the health, social, and economic consequences of this disease. NIAAA, NIMH, and NIDA were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.
Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.