The confusing world of dietary sugars: definitions, intakes, food sources and international dietary recommendations.
Summary of "The confusing world of dietary sugars: definitions, intakes, food sources and international dietary recommendations."
Government and health organizations worldwide have issued dietary guidelines for sugars. These guidelines vary considerably in the recommended or suggested intakes and the types of sugars specified. Despite access to the same published literature, recommendations vary greatly and create confusion for nutrition practitioners who offer dietary guidance. Some of the confusion in this field is linked to differences in definitions for sugar and methods to measure total sugars. Additionally, although dietary guidance typically recommends foods high in sugar, fruits and dairy products, other advice suggests strict limits on intake of "added sugar". Added sugar cannot be analytically determined and must be calculated so nutrient databases generally contain values for total sugar and do not differentiate between sugars naturally occurring in foods and those added in processing. This review defines sugars, provides the sugar content of major food sources, summarizes health concerns about dietary sugars, and compiles dietary guidelines for sugars issued by various organizations. Dietary recommendations from various health organizations are based on different means of assessment, and thus vary considerably. In general, the use of added sugars is cautioned, especially when it contributes to calories in excess of needs for an individual.
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, 1334 Eckles Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108. email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Food & function
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
The dietary intakes of lead and cadmium by 30 children and 30 adults living in Jinhu area in China were determined by the duplicate method with a 3-day sampling period. Dietary recall and available le...
Objectives: The goal of this research is to characterize the composition and nutrient adequacy of the diets in the northern region of the Department of Potosí, Bolivia. Communities in this semiarid,...
The present study aimed to investigate socio-economic disparities in food and nutrient intakes among young Irish women. A total of 221 disadvantaged and seventy-four non-disadvantaged women aged 18-35...
Scope: The aim of this study was to i) characterize dietary polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin exposure in consumers of fish from the PCB contaminated Lake Mjøsa in Norway ii) examine the in...
Background/Objectives:Low calcium and vitamin D intakes have been associated with health risks in childhood and adulthood. This study aims to investigate dietary sources of calcium and vitamin D intak...
While the deleterious effects of trans fat from industrial sources (iTFA) on cardiovascular health are well established, the impact of TFA from ruminants (rTFA) on cardiovascular risk fact...
Osteoporosis is a major health concern worldwide. While there are drugs available for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis, they are not practical for population-wide prevention ef...
It has been suggested that dietary fibers can affect food intake and satiation. Satiation, or meal termination, can be induced by sensory properties and energy density of fiber-rich food p...
Dairy products continue to be an important source of calcium, providing over half the calcium intake for most individuals. Educational interventions promoting adequate calcium intake with...
The primary aims of this study are to assess the effects of habitual dietary protein intakes across the acceptable macronutrient distribution range with lean beef/pork or soy/legumes as th...