Histological examination of the carotid bifurcation in case of violence against the neck.
Summary of "Histological examination of the carotid bifurcation in case of violence against the neck."
The carotid body and carotid sinus are localized in the area of the carotid bifurcation and respond to pressure fluctuations in the arterial blood vessel system. In case of irritation or stimulation, nervous impulses can reflexively increase the ventilation or slow down the heart rate and blood pressure, respectively. The external stimulation of the carotid sinus by neck compression with subsequent bradycardia or asystolia, especially in pre-existing heart-disease, is discussed controversially in the literature. Histological examination of the tissue of the carotid bifurcation, particularly with regard to haemorrhage as an indication of tissue trauma, should be carried out in terms of simple and easy feasibility in routine diagnostics. In 20 cases of violence against the neck and additionally 82 cases of a control group without neck trauma and variable causes of death, the carotid bifurcations were examined histologically. Only in one case of violence against the neck haemorrhage was found, which suggested a direct trauma to the tissue of the carotid bifurcation, but evidence of lethal cardiac reflex was not found in any case.
Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bonn, Stiftsplatz 12, 53111 Bonn, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Forensic science international
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22005549
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.09.009
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Carotid Artery, Common
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Carotid Artery Injuries
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
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