Obesity, inflammation and the immune system.
Summary of "Obesity, inflammation and the immune system."
Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.
Immunonutrition Research Group, Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition of the Spanish National Research Council (ICTAN-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429824
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665112000092
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM that result in regulation of the immune system by the nervous system.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Immune System Processes
Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.
Autoimmune Diseases Of The Nervous System
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
Obesity is characterised by a chronic state of low-grade inflammation in different tissues including the vasculature. There is a causal link between adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and obesity-relate...
Over the past decade, chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has gained acceptance as a lead promoter of insulin resistance in obesity. A great deal of evidence has pointed to the role...
Chemerin is a secreted protein with a complex but well-established role in immune function. Parallel lines of investigation also support the notion that chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates ad...
OBJECTIVE: Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the p...
Recent studies suggest that central obesity is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to overall obesity. Both inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with...
Research shows that the immune system is involved in chronic pain. The immune system is involved in the process of inflammation. The investigators are still learning about the factors tha...
The research project addresses the following hypotheses (A) the normal balance of beneficial and detrimental commensal intestinal bacteria is deranged in IBS, with selective alterations in...
The objective of this study is to determine whether 12 weeks of mesalamine therapy added to a standard HIV treatment decreases systemic immune activation and inflammation in HIV-infected p...
Excessive inflammation is associated with tissue damage caused by over-activation of the innate immune system. This can range from mild disease to extreme conditions such as multiple organ...
The investigators want to assess differences in lung function and bronchial inflammation of young smokers and non-smokers with (BMI > 30) and without obesity (BMI < 25)(4 patient groups)....