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Novel biological therapies, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib, improve the survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. However, assessment of therapeutic efficacy remains challenging with conventional imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, CT or MRI that predominantly rely on size change to detect a treatment response. A beneficial tumour effect may go unrecognized in some patients who do not show tumour shrinkage and conversely, some patients may be maintained on treatment that is not active. This paper explores the use of functional imaging methods that are showing promise in the assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Kings College London, London, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
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Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; fluorescence imaging; and MICROSCOPY.
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.
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