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We report a simple, ultra-sensitive, and straightforward method for non-labeling detection of a cancer biomarker, using Rayleigh light scattering spectroscopy of the individual nanosensor based on antibody-antigen recognition and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) λ(max) shifts. By experimentally measuring the refractive index sensitivity of Au nanorods, the Au nanorod with an aspect ratio of ∼3.5 was proven optimal for the LSPR sensing. To reduce the steric hindrance effect as well as to immobilize a large amount of ligand on the nanoparticle surface, various mixtures containing different molar ratios of HS(CH(2))(11)(OCH(2)CH(2))(6)OCH(2)COOH and HS(CH(2))(11)(OCH(2)CH(2))(3)OH were applied to form different self-assembled monolayer surfaces. The results showed that the best molar ratio for antibody conjugation was 1 : 10. When using individual Au nanorod sensors for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the lowest concentration recorded was ∼1 aM (∼6 × 10(5) molecules), corresponding to LSPR λ(max) shifts of ∼4.2 nm. These results indicate that sensor miniaturization down to the nanoscale level, the reduction of steric hindrance, and optimization of size, shape, and aspect ratio of nanorods have led to a significant improvement in the detection limit of sensors.
School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746, Korea.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Lab on a chip
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Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Stable gold atoms that have the same atomic number as the element gold, but differ in atomic weight. Au-197 is a stable isotope.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
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An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...