Practical dietary management of protein energy malnutrition in young children with cow's milk protein allergy.
Summary of "Practical dietary management of protein energy malnutrition in young children with cow's milk protein allergy."
To cite this article: Meyer R, Venter C, Fox AT, Shah N. Practical dietary management of protein energy malnutrition in young children with cow's milk protein allergy. Pediatric Allergy Immunology 2012: doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2012.01265.x
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 1.9 and 4.9% of infants and young children. This food allergy requires the complete elimination of cow's milk and its derivatives, impacting on nutritional status. The risk of having protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children with CMPA has been well documented. In 2007, the World Health Organisation published guidelines on the dietary management of PEM, which has impacted on the recommendations and composition on specialist feeds for many chronic diseases, but not on CMPA. The main change in management of the child with PEM is the protein energy ratio and energy requirements. The ideal protein energy ratio lies between 8.9 and 11.5%, which would ensure a deposition of about 70% lean and 30% fat mass. In addition, for optimal catch-up growth between 5 and 10 g/kg/day, energy requirements should be between 105 and 126 kcal/kg/day. Although most current hypoallergenic formulas fall well within the recommendation for protein, there is a problem in achieving energy requirements. As a result, modular additions are often made, disturbing the protein energy ratio or feeds are concentrated, which impacts on osmolality. We therefore aimed to review current guidelines on PEM and how these can be applied in the management of the malnourished child with CMPA.
Department of Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital London, London, UK The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS F
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22435534
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2012.01265.x
Abstract The wheel of industrialization that spun throughout the last century resulted in urbanization coupled with modifications in lifestyles and dietary habits. However, the communities living in d...
Dietary management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) focusses on limiting the intake of substances that might accumulate to toxic levels (such as potassium, phosphorus or salt) and, although still a mat...
One percent of falls in over-75years old cause hip fracture (HF). Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is associated with falls and fracture. PEM screening and perioperative nutritional management are re...
Background/Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status in children with different grades of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). Subjects/Methods. A total of two hun...
Early recognition of bacterial infections is crucial for their proper management, but is particularly difficult in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objectives of this study were to e...
The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of different dietary strategies for the management of children with MAM on: the children's continued participation in the nutritional r...
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) including moderate acute malnutrition (MAM: weight-for-height z-score
The metabolic response to Crohn's disease, including increased proteolysis and lipolysis and changes in energy expenditure, plays a significant role in the resulting malnutrition from whic...
The program effectiveness study aims to assess the effect of a lipid-based nutrition supplement (LNS) and micronutrient powder (MNP) provided in a programmatic context for improving matern...
The metabolic response to ulcerative colitis, including increased proteolysis and lipolysis and changes in energy expenditure, plays a significant role in the resulting malnutrition from w...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)