Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
To cite this article: Meyer R, Venter C, Fox AT, Shah N. Practical dietary management of protein energy malnutrition in young children with cow's milk protein allergy. Pediatric Allergy Immunology 2012: doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2012.01265.x
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) affects between 1.9 and 4.9% of infants and young children. This food allergy requires the complete elimination of cow's milk and its derivatives, impacting on nutritional status. The risk of having protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in children with CMPA has been well documented. In 2007, the World Health Organisation published guidelines on the dietary management of PEM, which has impacted on the recommendations and composition on specialist feeds for many chronic diseases, but not on CMPA. The main change in management of the child with PEM is the protein energy ratio and energy requirements. The ideal protein energy ratio lies between 8.9 and 11.5%, which would ensure a deposition of about 70% lean and 30% fat mass. In addition, for optimal catch-up growth between 5 and 10 g/kg/day, energy requirements should be between 105 and 126 kcal/kg/day. Although most current hypoallergenic formulas fall well within the recommendation for protein, there is a problem in achieving energy requirements. As a result, modular additions are often made, disturbing the protein energy ratio or feeds are concentrated, which impacts on osmolality. We therefore aimed to review current guidelines on PEM and how these can be applied in the management of the malnourished child with CMPA.
Department of Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital London, London, UK The David Hide Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS F
This article was published in the following journal.
Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front ...
Children's learning about food and physical activity is considerable during their formative years, with parental influence pivotal. Research has focused predominantly on maternal influences with littl...
Artificial sweeteners are used in protein substitutes intended for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism (Phenylketonuria, PKU) to improve the variety of medical foods available to pat...
Inadequate intakes of vitamin D and iron have been reported in young children in Ireland. The present study aimed to identify the main foods determining vitamin D and iron intakes and to model the imp...
Protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition are global public health problems which, when not prevented and severe, require medical management by clinicians with nutrition expertise, preferably as a...
The objectives of the study are to assess the impact of different dietary strategies for the management of children with MAM on: the children's continued participation in the nutritional r...
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) including moderate acute malnutrition (MAM: weight-for-height z-score
The metabolic response to Crohn's disease, including increased proteolysis and lipolysis and changes in energy expenditure, plays a significant role in the resulting malnutrition from whic...
This study is based on the change in weight of hospitalized patients knowing that the diagnosis of malnutrition based on the presence of at least one clinical or laboratory test which anth...
At hospital, short term actions are used (adaptation of meals, oral supplementation…) to fight malnutrition. Oral supplementation can have a positive impact on weight gain. But actions s...
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
Acute form of MALNUTRITION which usually affects children, characterized by a very low weight for height (below -3z scores of the median World Health Organization standards), visible severe wasting, or occurrence of nutritional EDEMA. It can be a direct or indirect cause of fatality in children suffering from DIARRHEA and PNEUMONIA. Do not confuse with starvation, a condition in which the body is not getting enough food, usually for extended periods of time.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...