Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
To examine factors that regulate ceramide production during keratinization of the human stratum corneum (SC), we developed a reconstructed human epidermal keratinization model in which a fresh layer of SC is newly formed within 1 week. Addition of the UDP-glucose: ceramide glucosyltransferase inhibitor 1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol significantly diminished SC ceramide levels (expressed as µg/mg protein) with decreased glucosylceramide levels. Desipramine hydrochloride, an inhibitor of sphingomyelinase, also significantly reduced SC ceramide levels. Similarly, conduritol B epoxide, an inhibitor of β-glucocerebrosidase, significantly down-regulated SC ceramide levels and significantly increased glucosylceramide levels. These results indicate the reliability of this model to elucidate ceramide synthesis regulating factors. Using this model, we assessed the effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1α (IL-1α), several bioactive sphingolipids and all-trans retinoic acid (RA) on ceramide levels in the SC. Whereas treatment with IL-1α (at 10 nM) significantly down-regulated ceramide levels, treatment with sphingosylphosphorylcholine (at 50 µM) or sphingosine-1-phosphate (at 10 or 20 µM) distinctly up-regulated ceramide levels. Interestingly, RA (at low as 10 nM) significantly up-regulated ceramide levels without affecting the formation of the SC or levels of keratinization-related proteins in the epidermis. The increased levels of ceramide were accompanied by a significantly increased secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as well as by a significantly down-regulated expression of acid-ceramidase at both the gene and protein levels. Taken together, our results underscore the superiority of this reconstructed human epidermal keratinization model to analyze factors that regulate ceramide synthesis, especially in human SC.
School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-0982, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of dermatological research
TMEM45A gene encodes an initially uncharacterized predicted transmembrane protein. We previously showed that this gene is highly expressed in keratinocytes where its expression correlates with keratin...
AsA (ascorbic acid), GSH (glutathione), HBSS (Hanks balanced salt solution), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromatography), IL (interleukin), MAP (magnesium ascorbyl phosphate), NHEKs (normal hum...
Mycobacterial infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to limitations of the currently available model systems, there are still comparably large gaps in the know...
A challenge in studying human salivary glands is to maintain the cells ex vivo in their three-dimensional (3D) morphology with an intact native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment. This paper estab...
Here, we studied the underlying mechanism of aldosterone (Aldo)-induced vascular endothelial cell damages by focusing on ceramide. We confirmed that Aldo (at nmol/L) inhibited human umbilical vein end...
Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Of Oral Health-Related Quality Of Life In Patients Wearing Vacuum Formed Thermoplastic Retainers Constructed On Conventional Stone Models And On 3D Reconstructed Orthodontic Study Model
In dentistry, 3D printing technology is gaining interest. One of the potential application is to construct appliances on 3D reconstructed study models. The purpose of this study is to com...
This study is a dose escalation study of Ceramide NanoLiposome in patients with advanced solid tumors.
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy use different ways to stop tumor cells from dividing so they stop growing or die. PURPOSE: Phase II trial to study the effectiveness of ceramide crea...
We believe that using a ceramide based foot cream two times a day for two weeks will prevent water loss and overall foot dryness in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes.
The purpose of this study is to compare the development of human embryos grown in a conventional culture dish to those grown in a new embryo culture device known as the SMART System.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
Cytokine Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)
TNF is a compound that is classified as a cytokine which plays a central role in the cellular mechanisms of apoptosis or cell death. However, there are a number of different kinds of TNF, just under twenty, but the family of molecules have very similar a...