Optimal incentives for allocating HIV/AIDS prevention resources among multiple populations.
Summary of "Optimal incentives for allocating HIV/AIDS prevention resources among multiple populations."
Many agencies, such as the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, provide funding to prevent HIV/AIDS infections worldwide. These funds are allocated at multiple levels, resulting in a highly complicated distribution process. An oversight agency allocates funds to various national-level decision-makers who then allocate funds to regional-level decision-makers who in turn distribute the monies to local organizations, programs, or risk groups. Simple allocation techniques are often preferred by the decision-makers at each administrative level, but such methods can lead to sub-optimal allocation of funds. Thus, incentives could be provided to decisionmakers in order to encourage optimal allocation of HIV/AIDS prevention resources. We formulate an incentive-based resource allocation model that takes into consideration strategic interactions between decision-makers in a multiple-level resource-allocation process. We analyze each decision-maker's behavior at the equilibrium and summarize the results that characterize the optimal solution to the resource-allocation problem. Our intended audiences are technical experts, decision-makers, and policy-makers in governments who can make use of incentives to encourage effective decisions regarding HIV/AIDS policy modeling and budget allocation at local levels.
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 4V2, Monali.Malvankar@schulich.uwo.ca.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Health care management science
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457168
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10729-012-9194-y
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A species of the genus MYCOPLASMA, originally isolated infrequently from the lower genital tract of humans, and possessing uncertain pathogenicity. The incognitus strain of M. fermentans has been identified in necrotizing lesions of multiple organs from AIDS and non-AIDS patients dying of an acute influenza-like disease.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.
The prevention of recurrences or exacerbations of a disease that already has been diagnosed. This also includes prevention of complications or after-effects of a drug or surgical procedure.
Conservation Of Natural Resources
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
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