MicroRNAs and Stem Cells: Control of Pluripotency, Reprogramming, and Lineage Commitment.
Summary of "MicroRNAs and Stem Cells: Control of Pluripotency, Reprogramming, and Lineage Commitment."
Stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms regulating self-renewal, pluripotency, and differentiation are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs controlling gene expression, either by inducing mRNA degradation or by blocking mRNA translation. The expression of miRs was shown to regulate various aspects of stem cell functions, including the maintenance and induction of pluripotency for reprogramming. In addition, some miRs control cell fate decisions. This review summarizes the role of miRs in reprogramming and embryonic stem cell self-renewal, and specifically addresses the regulation of cardiovascular cell fate decisions by miRs.
Molecular Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine III, University of Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany. Dimmeler@em.uni-frankfurt.de.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Circulation research
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461365
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.243394
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
Stem Cell Transplantation
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Nuclear Transfer Techniques
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell. Often the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred into a recipient OVUM or stem cell (STEM CELLS) with the nucleus removed. This technology may provide means to generate autologous diploid pluripotent cell for therapeutic cloning, and a model for studying NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING in embryonic stem cells. Nuclear transfer was first accomplished with frog eggs (RANA PIPIENS) and reported in 1952.
Multipotent Stem Cells
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Granulocyte-macrophage Progenitor Cells
The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the GRANULOCYTE lineage and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.
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