A New Level of Complexity: The Role of MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Development.
Summary of "A New Level of Complexity: The Role of MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Development."
The discovery of the regulatory role of noncoding RNAs, and micro (mi)RNAs in particular, has added a new layer of complexity to our understanding of cardiovascular development. miRNAs regulate and modulate various steps of cardiovascular morphogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, and phenotype modulation. miRNAs simultaneously regulate multiple targets, and many miRNAs can bind to the same target, allowing for a complex pattern of regulation of gene expression. miRNA families are continuously added during evolution paralleling the increased complexity of the cardiovascular system in vertebrates compared with invertebrates. Several lines of evidence suggest that the appearance of miRNAs is at least in part responsible for the formation of complex organ systems and stable regulatory mechanisms in vertebrates. We review the current understanding of miRNAs during cardiovascular development. Further progress in this area will help to decipher quantitative changes in gene expression that provide robustness to cellular phenotypes and regulatory options to diseases processes. miRNAs might also provide clues to better understand congenital heart defects, which are the most common birth defects in human newborns.
Department of Cardiac Development and Remodeling, Max-Planck-Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Ludwigstr 43, Bad Nauheim, Germany. Thomas.Braun@mpi-bn.mpg.de; E-mail Thomas.Boettger@mpi-bn.mpg.de.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Circulation research
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461364
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.247742
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.