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Abstract Objective: To model the cost-effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (paliperidone long-acting injectable; PLAI), a new once-monthly long-acting antipsychotic therapy, compared with risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) and olanzapine pamoate (OLAI), in multi-episode patients (two or more relapses) with schizophrenia in Sweden. Methods: A Markov decision analytic model was developed to simulate the history of a cohort of multi-episode patients transitioning through different health states on a monthly basis over a 5-year time horizon from the perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. Therapeutic strategies consisted of starting treatment with RLAI (mean dose 37.5 mg every 2 weeks), PLAI (mean dose 75 mg equivalent (eq.) every month) or OLAI (150 mg every 2 weeks or 300 mg every 4 weeks). Probability of relapse, level of adherence, side effects (extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, weight gain and diabetes) and treatment discontinuation (switch) were derived from long-term observational data when feasible. Incremental cost-effectiveness outcomes, discounted at 3% annually, included cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and cost per relapse avoided (expressed in 2009 Swedish Krona SEK). Results: Relative to RLAI and OLAI, PLAI is economically dominant: more effective (additional QALYs, less relapses) and less costly treatment option over a 5-year time horizon. The results were robust when tested in sensitivity analysis. Limitations: The impact of once-monthly treatment on adherence levels is not yet known, and not all variables that could impact on real-world outcomes and costs were included in this model. Conclusion: PLAI was cost-saving from a Swedish payer perspective compared with RLAI and OLAI in the long-term treatment of multi-episode (two or more relapses) schizophrenia patients.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of medical economics
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of risperidone long-acting injection (RLAI) and paliperidone palmitate (PP) on non-acute-phase social functioning in patients with schizophrenia.
Paliperidone palmitate long-acting injection (PPLAI) is an atypical antipsychotic agent currently approved by the European Medicine Agency for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in a...
Antipsychotic long-acting injectable (LAI) medication has an important place as a treatment option in schizophrenia with evolving evidence to support clinical benefit over oral medication. Paliperidon...
Patients with chronic schizophrenia suffer a huge burden as do their families/caregivers. Treating schizophrenia is costly for health systems. The European Medicines Agency has approved paliperidone p...
Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is common clinical practice. Theoretically, APP runs the risk of additional side effects, drug interactions, adherence and cost. A limited evidence base is emerging to...
The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety over 1 year of treatment of intramuscular injections of paliperidone palmitate and long-acting risperidone in patients ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term safety of flexible doses (50 to 150 mg equivalent) of paliperidone palmitate in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and to d...
The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy (how well the drug works; primarily through the time to relapse) of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate compared to treatment ...
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy (how well the drug works), safety, and side effects of paliperidone palmitate compared to placebo in the treatment of the symptoms of...
The purpose of the study is to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters (blood concentrations) of i.m. paliperidone palmitate after administration in 2 different injection sites (deltoid or ...
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, QUALITY OF LIFE, etc. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.
Coded listings of physician or other professional services using units that indicate the relative value of the various services they perform. They take into account time, skill, and overhead cost required for each service, but generally do not consider the relative cost-effectiveness. Appropriate conversion factors can be used to translate the abstract units of the relative value scales into dollar fees for each service based on work expended, practice costs, and training costs.
Enzyme catalyzing reversibly the hydrolysis of palmitoyl-CoA or other long-chain acyl coenzyme A compounds to yield CoA and palmitate or other acyl esters. The enzyme is involved in the esterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. EC 188.8.131.52.
Schizophrenia is a common serious long-term mental health condition that affects 5 in 1000 in the UK. It causes a range of different psychological symptoms; hallucinations, delusions, muddled thoughts based on the hallucinations or delusions and ch...