Effects of cigarette smoking, metabolic syndrome and dehydroepiandrosterone deficiency on intima-media thickness and endothelial function in hypertensive postmenopausal women.
Summary of "Effects of cigarette smoking, metabolic syndrome and dehydroepiandrosterone deficiency on intima-media thickness and endothelial function in hypertensive postmenopausal women."
Background: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between smoking and arterial hypertension as well as endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal women without clinically manifested symptoms of atherosclerosis. Material/Methods: The study groups consisted of 35 current smokers and 45 nonsmokers. The thickness of intima-media complex (IMT), a marker of atherosclerosis, was measured in carotid arteries. Plasma concentrations of fasting glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1), matrix metalloproteinases (metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1), insulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured. Results: Smokers compared with nonsmokers showed lower fasting glucose levels in blood (87.0±10.9 and 93.2±13.6 mg/dl, p<0.05), higher mean systolic (131.1±15.9 vs. 123.0±10.9 mm Hg, p<0.05) and diastolic (81.7±11.4 vs. 75.2±9.2 mm Hg, p<0.05) blood pressure during daytime, and higher average heart rate during the daytime (78.2±9.3/min vs. 71.5±9.5/min, p<0.01) and at night (67.2±10.6/min vs. 61.7±7.7/min, p<0.05), respectively. The IMT in the right carotid artery was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (0.96±0.16 mm vs. 0.82±0.21, p<0.05) and was positively correlated with smoking intensity (R=0.36) and habit duration (R=0.35). The comparison of inflammatory markers, metalloproteinases, and DHEA-S concentrations in plasma did not reveal significant differences between the 2 groups. A significant negative correlation between DHEA-S concentration in plasma and IMT in right carotid artery was found in smokers. Conclusions: Smoking in hypertensive postmenopausal women is associated with lower fasting blood glucose and BMI values, but higher arterial pressure and heart rate, and increases in IMT in right carotid artery.
Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Metabolic Syndrome X
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.
Cytochrome P-450 Cyp1a2
A cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that can be induced by polycyclic aromatic xenobiotics in the liver of human and several animal species. This enzyme is of significant clinical interest due to the large number of drug interactions associated with its induction and its metabolism of THEOPHYLLINE. Caffeine is considered to be a model substrate for this enzyme. CYP1A2 activity can also be increased by environmental factors such as cigarette smoking, charbroiled meat, cruciferous vegetables, and a number of drugs including phenytoin, phenobarbital, and omeprazole.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
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