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Treatment selection for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is guided by multiple factors, most importantly hormone receptor (HR) or HER2 expression, treatment history, and prognostic factors such as short disease-free interval, presence of visceral metastases, performance status, and degree of symptoms. Chemotherapy is indicated as initial therapy for patients with HR-negative disease and following failure of hormonal therapies in HR-positive disease. Patients treated with an anthracycline or a taxane in early-stage settings may no longer be candidates for those drugs in MBC, thus underscoring the need for alternative options. Sequential single-agent therapy or combination therapy are viable strategies. Trials have shown that ixabepilone plus capecitabine significantly improves progression-free survival compared with capecitabine alone in anthracycline- or taxane-pretreated or -resistant patients, and single-agent eribulin improves survival compared with the physician's choice of treatment in patients treated previously with at least two regimens for MBC. Regardless of the regimen, proactive management to detect treatment-related adverse events in a timely manner remains important for ensuring effective delivery of treatment. Many promising investigational agents are in development, including T-DM1 (trastuzumab emtansine) and pertuzumab for HER2-positive disease, as well as PARP-1 (poly[adenosine diphosphate ribose] polymerase-1) inhibitors and cetuximab for triple-negative disease. In addition, new options for the treatment of MBC following failure of an anthracycline and a taxane promise to improve patient outcomes. Nurses should remain vigilant for adverse events and remember that the goal of treatment remains control of the disease and palliation.
Baylor Regional Medical Center, Grapevine, Texas.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical journal of oncology nursing
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Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
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Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...