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Parkinsonian tremor (PD), essential tremor (ET) and voluntarily mimicked tremor represent fundamentally different motor phenomena, yet, magnetoencephalographic and imaging data suggest their origin in the same motor centers of the brain. Using EEG-EMG coherence and coherent source analysis we found a different pattern of corticomuscular delays, time courses and central representations for the basic and double tremor frequencies typical for PD suggesting a wider range defective oscillatory activity. For the basic tremor frequency similar central representations in primary sensorimotor, prefrontal/premotor and diencephalic (e.g. thalamic) areas were reproduced for all three tremors. But renormalized partial directed coherence of the spatially filtered (source) signals revealed a mainly unidirectional flow of information from the diencephalon to cortex in voluntary tremor, e.g. a thalamocortical relay, as opposed to a bidirectional subcortico-cortical flow in PD and ET promoting uncontrollable, e.g. thalamocortical, loop oscillations. Our results help to understand why pathological tremors although originating from the physiological motor network are not under voluntary control and they may contribute to the solution of the puzzle why high frequency thalamic stimulation has a selective effect on pathological tremor leaving voluntary movement performance almost unaltered.
Department of Neurology, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
Theoretical simulations suggest that spike rate is regulated by varying both membrane potential and its fluctuation. We investigated whether membrane potential fluctuation functionally changes in moto...
Frontal cortex plays a central role in the control of voluntary movements, which are typically guided by sensory input. Here, we investigate the function of mouse whisker primary motor cortex (wM1), ...
Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, pri...
With aging, people commonly develop motor slowing (bradykinesia). Although this slowness with aging may be entirely related to degradation of the cerebral networks important in motor programing, it is...
Recovery and trainability of impaired selective voluntary motor control (SVMC) of the lower extremity in children with upper motor neuron lesions has received little attention. To facilitate an eviden...
Tremors are involuntary movements of a part or parts of the body that occur because of alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles. The causes behind most tremors are poorly underst...
The goals of this study are to examine the physiology of Central Nervous System pathways contributing to the control of upper and lower extremity movements after SCI, and to promote the re...
This international, multi-center, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial aims to evaluate the efficacy of Phantom Motor Execution (PME) and Phantom Motor Imagery (PMI) as trea...
This study will investigate the brain areas that are activated by vocal and motor tics in patients with Tourette's syndrome and other tic disorders. Tics are involuntary repetitive movemen...
The aim of this study is to evaluate the gingival margin stability with the use of oscillating-rotating toothbrushes compared to manual toothbrushes.
Networks of nerve cells that control the firing patterns of MOTOR NEURONS to produce rhythmic movements such as MASTICATION; WALKING; SWIMMING; RESPIRATION; and PERISTALSIS.
A syndrome characterized by DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, dysphonia, impairment of voluntary movements of tongue and facial muscles, and emotional lability. This condition is caused by diseases that affect the motor fibers that travel from the cerebral cortex to the lower BRAIN STEM (i.e., corticobulbar tracts); including MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
Of all the types of Dementia, Alzheimer's disease is the most common, affecting around 465,000 people in the UK. Neurons in the brain die, becuase 'plaques' and 'tangles' (mis-folded proteins) form in the brain. People with Al...
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