Neuropeptide S promotes wakefulness through activation of the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic neurons.
Summary of "Neuropeptide S promotes wakefulness through activation of the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic neurons."
In spite of the initial and pivotal findings that the newly identified neuropeptide S (NPS) promotes arousal associated with locomotor and anxiolytic-like effects, the mechanisms through which NPS acts to modulate sleep-waking states remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate in the rat the effects of i.c.v. injection of NPS on the EEG, sleep-wake cycle, and brain c-Fos expression. NPS at 0.1 and 1 nmol increased significantly wakefulness (W) during the first 2 h (54.7±3.2 and 64.9±2.1 min, respectively, vs. 41.4±2.5 min seen with saline injections, P<0.01 and P<0.001), accompanied by an increase in EEG high frequency activities (14.5-60 Hz). In the meanwhile, slow wave sleep (SWS) and paradoxical sleep (PS) decreased significantly. Ex-vivo Fos immunohistochemistry in the posterior hypothalamus revealed that, as compared with saline-treated rats, NPS enhanced c-Fos expression in histaminergic neurons by 76.0% in the ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) and 57.8% in the dorsal TMN, and in orexinergic neurons by 28.2% in the perifornical nucleus (PeF), 24.3% in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), and 13.7% in the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) of the posterior hypothalamus. The NPS-induced c-Fos expression in histaminergic neurons and orexinergic neurons where NPS receptor (NPSR) mRNA is highly expressed, suggests that NPS activates histaminergic and orexinergic neurons to promote W.
Departments of Neuroscience, Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology, Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, 199 Donggang Xi Road, Lanzhou 730000, PR China.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22300983
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.01.022
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
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