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Objective To determine the onset, duration and efficacy of four local anesthetic methods for the horn bud in calves. Study design Crossover study. Animals Eight, 2 month-old Holstein Friesian bull calves. Methods Calves were subjected to one of the four following treatments: 1) cornual nerve block (C), 2) ring block (R), 3) cornual nerve block using a percutaneous jet delivery technique (JET) all using 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (0.01 mg mL(-1) ), and 4) topical eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream. A peripheral nerve stimulator was used to assess cutaneous sensation over the horn bud using a graded response. Onset, duration and efficacy of anesthesia were determined. Results The efficacy of the blocks was as follows: C 87.5%, R 100%, JET 37.5%, EMLA 0%. The median onset time and duration of anesthesia for C and R were: 2 (range 0.5-5) and 304 (range 107-512), and 3.25 (range 1-9) and 147 (range 62-299) minutes, respectively. Three of eight JET injections had a median onset and duration of 8 (range 0.5-9) and 132 (range 101-155) minutes, respectively. The duration of the C block was significantly longer than the R block (p = 0.047). Conclusions and clinical relevance The relatively rapid onset and long duration of anesthesia with C or R blocks using 2% lidocaine with epinephrine validates their practical use in dehorning calves while jet injection and EMLA cream provided insufficient analgesia to be clinically useful. The efficacy of the C block requires further study.
Department of Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of V
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia
To analyze possibilities of using different methods to increase the efficacy of psychopharmacotherapy of late onset depression, in particular to increase treatment duration.
The authors performed a meta-analysis to compare the characteristics of clonidine and dexmedetomidine as adjuvants to local anesthetic in intravertebral anesthesia. Four investigators independently se...
We compared the efficacy of local infiltrative anesthesia and regional mandibular block anesthesia using articaine to harvest ramus grafts and the postoperative sequelae.
To assess the efficacy of different methods of anesthesia on children underwent hypospadias surgery. Methods: A total of 90 children (2-6 years old, 11.5-21.0 kg weight) with I or II grade of hypos...
Alfaxalone encased in hydroxypropyl-β -cyclodextrin is a neuroactive steroid compound that has recently been approved in the United States for use as an anesthetic in dogs and cats. We evaluated the ...
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Spinal anesthesia is a commonly used technique for lower limb surgeries offering better quality of postoperative analgesia, lower incidence of side effects, and shorter post-anesthesia car...
Hemorrhoidectomy can be carried out under several modes of anesthesia. In western country hemorrhoidectomy usually be performed under general anesthesia, however there may be the complicat...
The present clinical trial randomized compared the clinical efficacy of the naproxen associated or not with esomeprazol, for the removal of lower third molars. Onset, duration of postopera...
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A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a rapid onset of action and a longer duration of action than procaine hydrochloride. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1017)
An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918)
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
Anesthesia is the loss of feeling or sensation in all or part of the body. It may result from damage to nerves or can be induced by an anesthetist (a medical professional) using anesthetics such as thiopental or propofol or sevoflurane during a surgical ...
An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...