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Leptospirosis is a direct zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. Many animals act as carriers or vectors. Human infection results from accidental contact with carrier animals or environment contaminated with animal urine containing the organism. Epidemics of leptospirosis result from poor sanitation in urban areas and are aggravated following natural calamities. The majority of leptospiral infections are either subclinical or result in very mild illness and patients recover without complications. In a few cases it may manifest as multiorgan failure where the mortality can go up to 40%. Infection in pregnant women may be grave leading to severe fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The presentation may mimic other viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, acute fatty liver, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and HELLP syndrome. Owing to the unusual presentation, leptospirosis in pregnancy is often misdiagnosed and under-reported. Preventive public education regarding hygiene, personal practices, source reduction, environmental sanitation, early diagnosis, and treatment of the condition are needed to avoid perinatal and maternal mortality.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SUT Academy of Medical Sciences, Trivandrum, 695028, Kerala, India, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Leptospirosis is diagnosed on clinical grounds, and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). IgM-ELISA (Serion-Virion) and immunochromatography test (Leptocheck-WB) are two immunodiagnostic ...
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Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
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