Mediators of chronic inflammation in polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Summary of "Mediators of chronic inflammation in polycystic ovarian syndrome."
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting 5-10% of reproductive-age women. Hyperandrogenemia, which characterizes the syndrome, stimulates the maturation of adipocytes and favors central obesity. The linking hub between obesity and other metabolic manifestations of the syndrome seems to be chronic low-grade inflammation. We discuss the most reliable current data regarding the role of inflammatory mediators in PCOS, with particular focus on the genetic mechanisms implicated. C-reactive protein levels are 96% higher in PCOS patients than in healthy controls. Patients with the -308A polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-α gene have elevated androgens in comparison with carriers of the -308G. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is elevated in lean patients, with a further rise in the presence of obesity and insulin resistance. Polymorphisms of the IL-1a, IL-1b and IL-6 genes have also been associated with PCOS. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels are positively associated with the syndrome, and carriers of the 4G allele of the 4G/5G polymorphism are at risk of developing PCOS. Other mediators discussed include adhesion molecules, osteoprotegerin, asymmetric dimethylarginine, homocysteine and advanced glycation end-products. The elucidation of the pathogenetic mechanisms implicated in PCOS and their connection with low-grade inflammation may in the future offer the opportunity for the formulation of novel therapeutic strategies and individualized therapy for these patients.
2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieio Hospital, University of Athens Medical School , Athens , Greece.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22553983
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09513590.2012.683082
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.
Lynch Syndrome Ii
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms associated with other malignancies, more commonly of ovarian or uterine origin. When also associated with SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS, it is called MUIR-TORRE SYNDROME.
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