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Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare salivary gland tumor of presumed intercalated duct origin with a low risk of metastasis and mortality. Factors shown to affect behavior include positive margins, vascular invasion, necrosis, and myoepithelial anaplasia. The latter category and dedifferentiated EMCs have been separated on the basis of presumed myoepithelial versus ductal origin, respectively. Three additional cases of typical EMC with transition to high-grade carcinoma are presented. Two of the tumors were stained with CAM5.2, 34betaE12, cytokeratin 14, p63, S100, calponin, smooth muscle actin, and muscle-specific actin. All tumors showed a gradual transition to a high-grade carcinoma from an EMC, each composed of clear cells even in the high-grade regions. One case also showed a discrete area with ductal lumina and another had plasmacytoid morphology. Squamous differentiation was seen in all cases as well. A consistent immunostaining pattern was not noted. Areas with focal lumina were diffusely positive for CAM5.2 only. Areas with clear cells showed patchy S100 positivity only, whereas cytokeratin 14 and 34betaE12-stained squamous pearls. The case with plasmacytoid morphology was diffusely positive for p63. No immunoexpression was noted with smooth muscle actin, muscle-specific actin, or calponin. It was not possible to convincingly separate the high-grade component in these cases into ductal dedifferentiated EMC versus myoepithelial. Recently, there has been a move to abandon the term "dedifferentiation" in favor of "high-grade transformation" in other salivary gland malignancies. We report these 3 such cases, review the literature and propose that these lesions be regarded as "EMC with high-grade transformation."
*Department of Pathology, University Health Network daggerDepartment of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario double daggerDepartment of Pathology, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Ca
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Name: The American journal of surgical pathology
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A mixed epithelial and myoepithelial neoplasm usually encountered within the breast. It is a multinodular lesion presenting with a bicellular pattern of proliferating epithelial and myoepithelial cells, which are regularly distributed in the glandular structures.
A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)
A malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells of the SALIVARY GLANDS, with microcystic architecture, low-grade nuclei, and granular vacuolated cytoplasm.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
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