Dose-Independent Kinetics with Low Level Exposure to Nicotine and Cotinine.
Summary of "Dose-Independent Kinetics with Low Level Exposure to Nicotine and Cotinine."
In studying the effects of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) levels of cotinine (the proximate metabolite of nicotine), measured in plasma, urine or saliva, are widely used as indicators of nicotine exposure . In interpreting the levels of cotinine in non-smokers relative to levels in smokers, the assumption is made that the pharmacokinetics of nicotine and cotinine are independent of level of nicotine exposure. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.
From the Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center Departments of Medicine, Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences and the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Educati
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: British journal of clinical pharmacology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22574797
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04327.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Lethal Dose 50
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Hearing Loss, Noise-induced
Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.
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