Vitamin D and Pregnancy: Skeletal Effects, Nonskeletal Effects, and Birth Outcomes.
Summary of "Vitamin D and Pregnancy: Skeletal Effects, Nonskeletal Effects, and Birth Outcomes."
The function and requirement of vitamin D during pregnancy for both mother and fetus have remained a mystery. This fact was highlighted by The Cochrane Review in 2000, which reported a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with respect to vitamin D requirements during pregnancy. Unfortunately, during the past decade only a single RCT has been performed with respect to vitamin D requirements during pregnancy. In this review we will discuss vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy as well as the consequences of vitamin D deficiency on skeletal, nonskeletal, and birth outcomes using birth observational data and data from our recent RCT. New RCT data strongly support previous observational studies in that improving nutritional vitamin D status will improve birth outcomes. The new RCT data indicate that 4,000 IU/day vitamin D(3) during pregnancy will "normalize" vitamin D metabolism and improve birth outcomes including primary cesarean section and comorbidities of pregnancy with no risk of side effects.
Department of Pediatrics, Darby Children's Research Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave., Room 313, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA, email@example.com.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Calcified tissue international
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22623177
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-012-9607-4
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Chromosomal Position Effects
The effects on gene expression that depend on the location of a gene with respect to its neighboring genes and region of chromosome. Stable position effects are sequence dependent. Variegated position effects depend on whether the gene is located in or adjacent to HETEROCHROMATIN or EUCHROMATIN.
A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
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