Sulfur metabolism in archaea reveals novel processes.
Summary of "Sulfur metabolism in archaea reveals novel processes."
Studies on sulfur metabolism in archaea have revealed many novel enzymes and pathways and have advanced our understanding on metabolic processes, not only of the archaea, but of biology in general. A variety of dissimilatory sulfur metabolisms, i.e. reactions used for energy conservation, are found in archaea from both the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla. Although not yet fully characterized, major processes include aerobic elemental sulfur (S(0) ) oxidation, anaerobic S(0) reduction, anaerobic sulfate/sulfite reduction and anaerobic respiration of organic sulfur. Assimilatory sulfur metabolism, i.e. reactions used for biosynthesis of sulfur-containing compounds, also possesses some novel features. Cysteine biosynthesis in some archaea uses a unique tRNA-dependent pathway. Fe-S cluster biogenesis in many archaea differs from that in bacteria and eukaryotes and requires unidentified components. The eukaryotic ubiquitin system is conserved in archaea and involved in both protein degradation and biosynthesis of sulfur-containing cofactors. Lastly, specific pathways are utilized for the biosynthesis of coenzyme M and coenzyme B, the sulfur-containing cofactors required for methanogenesis.
Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental microbiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22626264
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02783.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.
A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
Sulfur-sulfur Bond Isomerases
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of a sulfur-sulfur bond. EC 5.3.4.
An order of strictly anaerobic, thermophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. Members exhibit heterotropic growth by sulfur respiration. There is a single family THERMOCOCCACEAE.
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