Investigation of Formulation Variables and Excipient Interaction on the Production of Niosomes.
Summary of "Investigation of Formulation Variables and Excipient Interaction on the Production of Niosomes."
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of formulation and process variables on the properties of niosomes formed from Span 40 as nonionic surfactant. A variety of formulations encapsulating Paclitaxel, a hydrophobic model drug, were prepared using different dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and Span 40-cholesterol (1:1) amounts. Formulations were optimized by multiple regression analysis to evaluate the changes on niosome characteristics such as entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and in vitro drug release. Multiple regression analysis revealed that as Span 40-cholesterol amounts in the formulations were increased, zeta potential and percent of drug released at 24th hour were decreased. Besides, DCP was found to be effective on increasing niosome size. As a process variable, the effect of sonication was observed and findings revealed an irreversible size reduction on Span 40 niosomes after probe sonication. Monodisperse small sized (133 ± 6.01 nm) Span 40 niosomes entrapping 98.2% of Paclitaxel with a weight percentage of 3.64% were successfully prepared. The drug-excipient interactions in niosomes were observed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Both techniques suggest the conversion of PCTs' crystal structure to amorphous form. The thermal analyses demonstrate the high interaction between drug and surfactant that explains high entrapment efficiency. After 3-month storage, niosomes preserved their stability in terms of drug amount and particle size. Overall, this study showed that Span 40 niosomes with desired properties can be prepared by changing the content and production variables.
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: AAPS PharmSciTech
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22644706
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-012-9805-4
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Confounding Factors (epidemiology)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Work Capacity Evaluation
Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Principal Component Analysis
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Protein Interaction Mapping
Methods for determining interaction between proteins.
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