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To assess the efficacy of using facial sonographic markers for screening fetuses in the second trimester for Down syndrome (DS) in a high-risk Thai population.
Frontomaxillary facial angle (FMF) and nasal bone length (NBL) were measured prospectively in pregnant women at high-risk for DS who were undergoing genetic amniocentesis from November 2008 to October 2009. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to assess the screening efficacy of FMF angle and NBL.
A total of 460 pregnant women were recruited, and a mid-sagittal facial profile was obtained for 403 fetuses. There were 386 fetuses with normal chromosomes, 10 fetuses with DS, 1 fetus with trisomy 13, and 1 fetus with trisomy 18. The remaining 5 fetuses had balanced translocation (n=2), deletion (n=1), and mosaic Turner (n=2). Two different combinations of FMF angle and biparietal diameter to nasal bone length (
NBL) ratio for DS screening in the second trimester achieved 50% and 90% detection rates and 4.4% and 14.0% false positive rates, respectively.
The combination of FMF angle and
NBL ratio has a high sensitivity and specificity for screening for DS in the second trimester in a high-risk Thai population.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
A syndrome of congenital facial paralysis, frequently associated with abducens palsy and other congenital abnormalities including lingual palsy, clubfeet, brachial disorders, cognitive deficits, and pectoral muscle defects. Pathologic findings are variable and include brain stem nuclear aplasia, facial nerve aplasia, and facial muscle aplasia, consistent with a multifactorial etiology. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1020)
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Obstetrics and gynaecology
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