Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness through the Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Systems.
Summary of "Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness through the Monoaminergic and Cholinergic Systems."
Abstract Sleep and wakefulness are regulated in the brainstem and hypothalamus. Classical brain dissecting or stimulating studies have proposed the concept of an ascending reticular activating system, presently known as the wakefulness center, located in the caudal midbrain/rostral pontine (mesopontine) areas, comprising the serotonergic, noradrenergic and cholinergic neural populations. These neural groups, in association with the histaminergic and orexinergic neurons in the hypothalamus, activate the cerebral the cortex through the thalamus or basal forebrain. This activating (waking) system is controlled by the slow wave sleep (SWS) generating system in the preoptic area, which receives inhibitory signals from the waking center. The mesopontine area is also involved in the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Reciprocal interactions between the cholinergic/glutamatergic excitatory systems and the aminergic/GABAergic inhibitory systems are crucial for the regulation of REM sleep. In the REM activating system, mutual excitatory interactions between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons serve to maintain the state of REM sleep. The REM activating system in the mesopontine area receives GABAergic inhibitory signals from several neural groups in the periaqueductal gray and the medulla. Thus, sleep and wakefulness are controlled by the interplay of various neural populations located in several areas in the central nervous system.
Department of Science and Technology, Fukushima University.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyÅ« no shinpo
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep-wake Transition Disorders
Parasomnias characterized by behavioral abnormalities that occur during the transition between wakefulness and sleep (or between sleep and wakefulness).
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
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